The indemnity also required Carthage to obtain permission from Romans before deploying armed forces and gathering them. The questions remain to this day: Did Hannibal carelessly squander the power of Carthage? Battles. Throughout the conflict, intelligence played a pivotal role in shaping the direction the war took. Those 17 years of war were nothing if not eventful. A civil war breaks out following his death over making Rome a republic again. All this tension culminated in a series of three wars fought between the two states from 264 BC to 146 BC. His strategies saw him lure the Romans into traps and beat them at their own game. The interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241–218 bce) The loss of naval supremacy not only deprived the Carthaginians of their predominance in the western Mediterranean but exposed their overseas empire to disintegration under renewed attacks by Rome. First Punic War (264-241 BCE) – Rome wins Sicily, controls western Mediterranean Second Punic War (218-202 BCE) – Hannibal marches toward Rome; Scipio counterattacks Third Punic War (149-146 BCE) Carthage burned, made a Roman province The Romans won the Battle of Zama by 202 BC because of their massive military strength, and also because of the help rendered by the Massyli Tribe. Here is a list of the top 10 biggest events of the Second Punic War: At a time when Hannibal was marching unfathomable distances with his infantry, cavalry and war elephants, the Romans were also facing a stiff uprising among the Gallic tribes, further worsening the situation for them. There were three main fronts in this war: Italy, where Hannibal defeated the Romans in repeated battles; Hispania, where Hannibal’s younger brother defended Carthaginian colonial cities with gusto; and Sicily, where the Romans never lost their supremacy. The Romans suffered such massive setbacks at the hands of the Carthaginians that they appointed a dictator as their commander in chief called Quintus Fabius Maximus temporarily. The Gallic population mainly constituted of the Boii and Insubres. Hannibal, Hamilcar's son, lays siege to the Spanish City of Saguntum. The same happened to a Carthaginian spy in Rome, who might as well have been a Roman citizen. Summary of the Work Plan: Causes of Wars Plan: Events in Greece Extension of the First Plan of the Work The True Theory of Historical Causes Causes of the Second Punic War Fabius Pictor on the Cause of the Punic War The Credibility of Fabius Pictor First Cause of the Second Punic War Second Cause of the War Hannibal's … Battle of Trebia 218 bc. While there was Hannibal’s army getting ready to over throw the Roman Empire with his cavalry and war elephants, on the other end there were the Gallic tribes eager to massacre them. At the end of the First Punic War, Sicily becomes Rome's first overseas province c. 240 BC Spain, with its mines of gold, silver and copper, is a hotly disputed region between Carthage and Rome See Ebro Treaty. 753 BC: The “foundation of Rome” By the last century BC, Romans believed that … this was the beginning of a real 'empire'. That he refrained from attacking the city of Rome at the height of his successful campaign still surprises historians. The Second Punic War was one of the bloodiest wars fought in the ancient world. The web's source of information for Ancient History: definitions, articles, timelines, maps, books, and illustrations. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. His cleverness and tact were appreciated even by the opposing Romans. He withdrew northward to rendezvous with Gnaeus Scipio's army, just as a third Carthaginian for… His three sons, Hannibal, Hasdrubal, and Mago, were Carthaginian generals in the Second Punic War. Carthage meted out severe punishments to generals who failed in their mission, even if through events beyond their control, with several commanders suffering death by … Important Events. 2nd Punic War 218 bc - 201 bc. Furthermore, Rome imposed a number of sanctions upon the Carthaginians which prevented them from making any further uprisings. This timeline highlights the major events in the history of Ancient Rome. After the death of Hannibal’s father, Hamilcar, Hannibal came to power and he … But unfortunately he failed and killed in action .if that army had reached Hannibal,s hands ,it would have changed the course of the war. To be used with the Vocabulary Summary and Timeline handout. Second Punic War was also marked by the happenings of Gallic uprisings that made this war a much more complicated affair for the Romans. The flash point for the wars was the island of Sicily. The world will remember Hannibal who displayed his ferocious attitude and war tactfulness and gave a very hard time to the mighty Romans that almost faced a grand defeat at the hand of the Carthaginians. The dictator continued with this strategy, resulting in an agitated Hannibal and arrest of many Carthaginians as prisoners. The Battle of Cannae was one of the greatest victories for Hannibal and his troops in the 2nd Punic War. Until the decisive moment arrived, the outcome of the war hung in the balance throughout a number of battles. With Hannibal, these Gallic tribes obtained the control of Placentia and Cremona, Romam colonies. With his genius, Hannibal Barca, though, gained much ground, but eventually lost to the Romans in this war. Nevertheless, its commercial enterprises expanded rapidly in the 2nd century bce, exciting the envy of Rome’s growing mercantile community. They were drawn into battle after an exhausting journey with no food, the result being that most of them were unable to put up a good fight. Soon, the entire north of Italy was declared insurgent, with both Gallic and Ligurian troops bolstering Hannibal’s army by an additional 40,000 men. This agreement didn't cause any problems to either side at this point - Carthage's Spanish lines were much further south, while Rome was not involved in Spain at all at this point. Rome entered the Second Punic War as the dominant city in Italy..., yet emerged as a world power'. In fact, Hannibal’s route across the Alps has been a matter of debate among historians with many of them having their own opinions on the matter. Julius Caesar becomes the first dictator of Rome and ends the Roman Republic. Barca with his intelligent mind created traps for the Romans and defeated them on many occasions. During this period, most of the major battles of the Second Punic War were fought in Sicily or Spain. The biggest boost to the Romans was the support of the Massyli tribe, which had originally fought along with the Carthaginians but sided with the Romans after the Battle of Ilipa. Their city had suffered too much in the war and in its aftermath during the ‘M… The former territory of Carthage, Hispania soon became a part of the Roman Empire towards the end of this war. Even though Hannibal’s army invaded Italy from the north and resoundingly defeated the Roman army in several battles, he could never achieve the ultimate goal of causing a political break between Rome and its allies. The City was a Greek colony allied to Rome, which sparks the beginning of the Second Punic war. The Second Punic War happened between 218 BC and 201 BC. This battle eventually led to the fall and defeat of Hannibal Barca who knew about his opponent’s power. Introduction The Punic Wars were a defining moment in the expansion of the Roman Republic, with the Second Punic War (218 – 201 BC (Grant, 1960)) playing the part of a corner stone in the bridge to create the powerful Roman Empire. It began in Rome in 753 BC. Copyright © (2016 - 2020) Historyly.com. See Carthaginian-Macedonian Treaty. This paper analyzes the Second Punic War using the Contextual and Operational Elements found in the Campaign Planning Model to determine how Rome and Carthage conducted the war, and whether they maintained congruency as each respective country pursued their national objective. Then by the shore of Lake Trasimene, he was all prepared for the enemy with his ambush. The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. Naval Battles. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardiniaand, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. But despite this advantage, the Carthaginians could not avoid ultimate defeat. With his … Hannibal, on the other hand, had a mixture of African, Celtic, and Spanish infantry, 10,000 cavalry, and his notoriously efficient war elephants at the front. The Roman military under Scipio had learned many lessons from Hannibal’s tactics and were ready to outwit and beat the Carthaginians in the final showdown. Julius Caesar is assassinated. They imposed a war indemnity on them, limited their navy to 10 ships (those 10 ships were spared so that the Carthaginians could ward off possible pirate attacks) and forbade Carthage from assembling any sort of army without the permission of Rome. Rise and Fall of Hannibal. Dude…. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. As compared to the mighty Romans, the Carthaginians were not at par as far as their armed forces were concerned. The 2nd Punic War was one of the three epic battles fought between Carthaginians and the Romans from 218 BC to 201 BC. b. 146 BCE. But without strong leadership and the resources they had in the previous war, Carthage could only put up a fight for a mere three years. He got caught and had his hands cut off as a punishment. After the First Punic War there was a temporary peace between Carthage and the Romans as both economies were dependent on the Mediterranean Sea as a commercial trading route from Eastern countries like Greece and Lebanon. These wars were called the Punic Wars. Regardless, the march of Hannibal and his army is the stuff of legend to this day. Second Punic War where Hannibal is the primary Carthaginian commander throughout, whereas the Romans had more than a dozen commanders. The war was the stuff of legend among contemporary historians. After repeated failed attempts at luring the Roman army under Flaminius on to the battlefield, Hannibal came up with a new strategy and had men marched around the enemy’s flank to cut them off from Rome. While this war was a lot shorter than the First Punic War, it is most well known for the Carthage leader Hannibal who caused massive damage to the Romans. Bibliography Primary Sources Secondary Sources Ultimately, Rome won the Second Punic War, but it was not a foregone conclusion. Punic Wars > Second Punic War. A dispute between the cities … The Battle Of The Punic Wars 3659 Words | 15 Pages. Hannibal dealt a huge blow by decimating most of the Roman army with minimal loss to his side. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Fought in Italy in 218 BC, the Battle of Trebia was a major battle between the Carthaginians led by Hannibal and the Roman military under Sempronius Longus. So much so that according to Livy, it was “the most memorable of all wars that were ever waged – the war which the Carthaginians, under the leadership of Hannibal, fought with the Roman people. They adopted a strategy called Fabian Strategy according to which no active or open fighting was indulged in directly. These two had previously established diplomatic relations with the Carthaginians. Military genius that Hannibal was, he had to face an eventual fall that led to a massive loss for the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War. See Second Punic War Battles. Historyly.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. By 214 BC, Mago and Hasdrubal had levied new forces and decided to strike first. So Quintus Fabius Maximus was appointed as the temporary dictator cum commander-in-chief. This defeat had a huge psychological effect on the Romans for it sent ripples of panic through Rome, and they started having doubts about the very future of their city. Hannibal’s cavalry broke through the smaller numbers of the enemy and then attacked the bulk of the Romans from the front and sides. The Second Punic War was fought from 218 BC to 201 BC and is best remembered for the huge battles fought between the Carthaginians under Hannibal and the Romans under several different generals. This result sent chills of doubt through Rome and its allies and boosted the confidence of the Carthaginians and other rival tribes. Earlier, the Carthaginians had smartly captured a supply depot to serve as a diversion, luring the Romans into battle at the Trebia. But soon, Fabius became unpopular in Rome since his tactics did not lead to a quick end to the war and he was removed from his post in the 216 BC election. This chronology includes references to some of the other fronts on which Rome was fighting at the same time and the importation of the stone Great Mother from Asia Minor that Rome brought home to help her reverse the trend and win the war… This website uses cookies to improve your experience. In fact, it would not be an overstatement to say that the Carthaginians were the favorites to win the war from the beginning, only to falter in the later and more decisive stages. the Third Punic War, when … The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifte… It was fought on the shores of Aufidus River and saw Numidian horse cavalry fight off the Romans with courage and tact. The Roman forces were led by consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus. His major victories that came later in the war were entirely dependent on intelligence information. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Du Bois Life and Contribution, 15 Most Disastrous Pandemics That Changed History, 15 Fearless Female Warriors of Ancient World. the war left Rome in control - for the first time - of Cisapline Gaul, Sicily, Sardinia and Spain (which they decided to keep) - i.e. The first and second Punic wars (264–241 bce and 218–201 bce) had effectively deprived Carthage of its political power. This rather cowardly act was of course not so popular among the Roman soldiers who gave Fabius the nickname of Cunctator which meant “delayer” since he seemed to avoid battle at a time when Italy was being beaten by its enemies. When spies were caught, they would be punished harshly. Scullard say that unlike earlier periods of Rome, the history of the period of the First Punic War comes from annalists who had contact with actual eye-witnesses. By 146 BC, Carthage was destroyed by the Romans who became the rulers of the Mediterranean region. These cookies do not store any personal information. He was little known among the Romans at the beginning of the war, and had he not marched across the Alps – one of the bravest and cunning acts in that war – he may not have been able to deal blow after blow to the Roman defense especially at the beginning. Hannibal's losses in the Second Punic War effectively put an end to Carthage's empire in the western Mediterranean, leaving Rome in control of Spain and allowing Carthage to retain only its territory in North Africa. Hannibal had always been well informed of the situation in Rome, fed with secret information by his Gallic spies all over Rome. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage.The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to the island. Some 6,000 infantry who were able to escape from the battlefield were caught by the Numidians and then forced to lay their arms and surrender. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthag… The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was the rise of Hannibal as a competent leader and a cunning tactician as well as his eventual fall that became more and more inevitable as the war neared its decisive period. Even though these tribes despised the Romans, they were never able to do much about it because of their limited power. Also Read: 15 Things You Should Know About Hiroshima And Nagasaki. This battle led to a loss of 2700 cavalrymen and about 45,500 infantry soldiers for the Romans. Feb 1, 2013 218 BC- Hannibal's Movement Carthage was also forced to give up its fleet and pay a large indemnity to Rome in silver. Second Punic War Background Carthaginian-Macedonian Treaty. In fact, Hannibal had an intelligence service that led to some of his most outstanding victories. The Roman Empire begins when Octavius appoints himself Augustus … 15 Things You Should Know About Hiroshima And Nagasaki, 14 Facts about W.EB. A chance to pull together the key themes of the depth study, to allow students to engage with overarching general questions about the Second Punic War, similar to the style of essay questions that they will find in the examination. Second Punic War - Second Punic War Battles. Third Punic War + Third Punic War … The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. The Roman army constituted a force that was superior both in terms of arms and skill when compared to the Carthaginians. The Roman legions, now commanded by Scipio Africanus, made a second … To fight off Hannibal’s so far successful tactics on the battlefield, the Romans deployed the Fabian strategy – they did not engage in open battle with the opponent, but dueled on repeated occasions using smaller detachments. But this turned out to be a masterstroke. A timeline of the second Punic War with a picture, latin sentence, and translation per event The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome.It was in a real sense the personal war of Hannibal. Finally, in 207 B. To further reinforce the Carthaginian attack, the Romans were also attacked at the rear by a hidden detachment led by Hannibal’s younger brother. His cleverness and tact were appreciated even by the opposing Romans. He soon decided on the most opportune time to pull off a surprise attack and started his army’s march across the Alps, which were sparsely populated at the time. Advancing into the territory of some of Rome's new Spanish allies near Acra Leuce they defeated the local tribal forces. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. The battle, which went on to be known as the Battle of Lake Trasimene, saw an effective Carthaginian attack on Roman consul Flaminius and his army of about 25,000 men between the hills at Cortona and Lake Trasimene. the Second Punic War, when Hannibal invades Italy. Save my name and email in this browser for the next time I comment. The Battle of Zama became Hannibal’s downfall and dealt a decisive blow to the Carthaginian forces. He spent the period between the First and Second Punic Wars building up an empire in Spain, and preparing for the inevitable renewal of hostilities. They started by occupying the Roman colonies of Placentia and Cremona. These uprisings caused a major setback for the Romans. The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was … Sempronius Longus’ 40,000 infantry positioned themselves in a triple line with 4,000 cavalry on the side. Hannibal remained in Italy for thirteen more years. Hannibal rose to become a great leader of the Carthaginians that can be regarded as a huge spectacle of the war. Battle of Zama Leads to End of Second Punic War 202 BC Scipio Africanus decisively defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zama. This timeline goes from 753 BC to 27 BC … Two huge defeats at the hands of the Carthaginians rang an alarm bell among the Romans, and they decided it was time for immediate emergency action to ward off any further loss to the state. The key event of his time in charge was that in c.226 BC he signed a treaty with Rome agreeing not to interfere north of the River Ebro. 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