I don’t own this article, but I would like to thank the owner/author of this. This article covers the history of the Philippines following the 1986 People Power Revolution known as the Fifth Republic of the Philippines.. Although the details vary in the retelling, one Philippine creation myth focuses on this core element: a piece of bamboo, emerging from the primordial earth, split apart by the beak of a powerful bird. Historical Background Between 1941-1945, Philippine Literature was interrupted in its development when the Philippines was again conquered by another foreign country, Japan. Mark Twain, prominent author, wrote for the The New York Herald in 1900: I have read carefully the Treaty of Paris, and I have seen that we do not intend to free, but to subjugate the people of the Philippines. Filipinos often lose sight of the fact that the first period of the Philippine literary history is the longest. June 12, 1898 raised the Philippine flag as a symbol of our independence. The treaty was hotly debated by the Senate. pre-colonial period of philippine literature SUMMARY: Owing to the works of our own archaeologists, ethnologists and anthropologists, we are able to know more and better judge information about our pre-colonial times set against a bulk of material about early Filipinos as recorded by Spanish, Chinese, Arabic and other chroniclers of the past. He is remembered as a Filipino writing for his people, a native son who used the tools of storytelling to expose the truth about life under colonial rule. 12. RIDDLES (bugtong) – battle of wits among participants. This video is for educational purposes only. In 1896, Rizal was arrested and convicted of several crimes, including inciting rebellion, and was executed by firing squad on December 30. The issue of shifting boundaries notwithstanding, the modern-day cartographic image of the Philippine archipelago as a unified whole was credited to Jesuit priest Pedro Murillo Velarde, Francisco Suarez, and Nicolas de la Cruz who, in 1734, conceptualized, sketched, and engraved the first accurate map of the territory. Gavin Shatkin, “Obstacles to Empowerment: Local Politics and Civil Society in Metropolitan Manila, the Philippines,” Urban Studies 37, no. Riddles were existent in all languages and dialects of the ancestors of the Filipinos and cover practically all of the experiences of life in these times. Scholars agree that the Spanish arrival profoundly affected the course of Philippine history. One day a fisherman from around the nearby villages who was very good looking and … This had an advantageous effect on Filipino Literature … Throughout the business and government sector, English became the dominant language, as well as the language that bridged communication gaps between regional Filipino cultural groups who did not share an indigenous language.Today, English, along with Filipino, is recognized as a national language of the Philippines. During World War II, however, Japan attacked the Philippines and held the country from 1941 to 45. PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD Early Times – 1564 The first period of the Philippine literary history is the longest. Philippine literature during american period 1. 13. Precolonial poetry were composed of poems composed of different dialects of the islands. During this era, Christian groups flourished as Protestants and other denominations began proselytizing via missionary expeditions. The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, disasters, a persistent communist insurgency, and a military conflict with Moro separatists. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. the Islamic confidence started to spread all through the area, and it soon achieved the Philippines by means of Brunei and Malaysia. Had other colonies been maintained or certain battles victorious, Las Islas Filipinas could have included, for example, territory in what is now Borneo and Cambodia. Yet while “independent” implied a Philippines officially free from foreign rule, many contemporary narratives of Filipino identity, citizenship, and statehood are inevitably influenced by the colonial past and, some say, the continuing undue influence of other countries. Local factories under Japanese control produced goods for the war effort while Filipinos suffered food shortages. Philippine drama would have taken the form of the dance-drama found in other Asian countries. The perishable materials on which the Filipinos wrote were disintegrate and the missionaries who believed that indigenous pagan culture was the handicraft of the devil himself destroyed those that remained. ( Log Out / His works, once considered seditious propaganda by some, are now available as free downloads.7 Admirers who take to social media characterize Rizal as their hero and post facts about his background and achievements or quotes from his texts.8 The power of Rizal’s narratives transcend the paper documents handwritten 125 years ago. Carillo “Transparency International: the Global Coalition Against Corruption,” accessed September 13, 2014, http://tinyurl.com/qfms53j. Composed of social, political, and economic luminaries of the era (for example, activist Jane Addams and former President Grover Cleveland), the league organized a series of publications criticizing the US government’s colonial policies. Filipinos can have a picture of the original or indigenous characteristics of Philippine societies. “José Rizal: Not Your Ordinary One Peso Guy,” accessed March 10, 2014, http://tinyurl.com/lr9gvht. Bonifacio P. Sibayan, The Intellectualization of Filipino and Other Essays on Education and Sociolinguistics (Manila: De La Salle University Press, 1999), 543. At the completion of this topic, you should be able to: 1. trace the historical events and development of Philippine Literature during the Japanese period; 2. discuss the types of poetry (Haiku and Tanka) during the Japanese period; and 3. analyze and appreciate the poem as a literary genre by writing own Haiku and Tanka. Philippine literature is the literature associated with the Philippines and includes the legends of prehistory, and the colonial legacy of the Philippines. Numerous datus changed over from the old religion of animism to the new religion of Islam. Within this colonial geography, however, Spain realized that the actual distance between the capital center of Manila and areas on the margins (as well as the very real problems with overcoming difficult terrain between communities) made ruling difficult. Instead of unifying the diverse local populations under one banner during the almost 400 years of Spanish rule, various groups remained fiercely independent or indifferent to the colonizer; some appropriated and reinterpreted Spanish customs,2 while others toiled as slaves to the empire.3. There is a great wealth of mythical and legendary lore that belongs to this period, but preserved mostly by word of mouth, with few written down by interested parties who happen upon them. Uncategorized (PDF) PHILIPPINE HISTORY Pre Pre - -Colonial Period ... ... bleblebleah Famed Philippine historian William Henry Scott (1994) recounts, for instance, examples of Visayans who “worshiped nature spirits, gods of particular localities or activities, and their own ancestors”;4 Bikolanos whose “female shamans called baliyan . The government has attempted crackdowns on both but has been unsuccessful so far. Philippine epics from the pre-colonial era told mythological stories, and often reflected on community ethics. 7. Their epics, songs, short poems, tales, dances and rituals gave them a native Asian perspective which served as a filtering device for the Western culture that the colonizers brought over from Europe. Each mountain tribe and each group of lowland Filipinos had its own. Americans who supported annexing the Philippines viewed the archipelago as a doorway through which the United States could gain more of a financial foothold in Asia while extending its empire overseas. Timeline of Philippine Literature 1. Widely recognized as simply a puppet government, the dominating Japanese military continued occupying the area. REFLECTION: Pre-colonial Filipinos are unlike from the Filipinos after the Spanish period. Because of their works in the past we have useful things in the present. Prominent urban planner Daniel Burnham visited the Philippines in 1904 and designed the capital city of Manila for redevelopment.11 US culture dominated Philippine life. Although anthropological investigations continue, scholars believe Spain claimed territory encompassing over 150 cultural, ethnic, and linguistic groups. Muslim traders traveled in and around the southern islands, and over time, these merchants likely married into wealthy local families, encouraging permanent settlements while spreading Islam throughout the area. The Tagbanwas, Tagabilis, Mangyans, Bagobos, Manuvus, Bilaan, Bukidnons, and Isneg could cling on the traditional way of life because of the inaccessibility of settlements. Other revolutionaries emerged, and by the end of the nineteenth century, leaders such as Andrés Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto were pressuring Spanish leadership on several fronts. Most of the notable literature of the Philippines was written during the Spanish period and the first half of the 20th century in Spanish language. By 1898, as Spain was fighting to quell the uprisings in the Philippines, it became embroiled in the Spanish-American War. Area: 120,000 square miles; slightly larger than Arizona, Freedom House rating from “Freedom in the World 2015” (ranking of political rights and civil liberties in 195 countries): Partly Free, Chief of State and Head of Government: President Benigno Aquino (since June 30, 2010), Elections: President elected by popular vote and serves a single six-year term, Legislative Branch: Bicameral Congress; Senate (twenty-four seats, half of the seats are elected every three years, elected by popular vote, serving six-year terms) and House of Representatives (287 seats, all seats elected by popular vote every three years, serving three-year terms), Judicial Highest Courts: Supreme Court (chief justice and fourteen associate justices), Judges: Appointed by president on recommendations by the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until age seventy. Lydia N. Yu-Jose in “World War II and the Japanese in the Prewar Philippines” (1996) describes an immigrant population of approximately 20,000 Japanese people living in the islands prior to the war.15 Some were temporary migrants, content to work in the Philippines for several years and then return to Japan with their earnings. Although precolonial poems are distinct from the lyrics of the folksongs the said poems were usually chanted when recited, as is still the custom of all Asiatic peoples and Pacific Ocean tribes. Philippine literature is the literature associated with the Philippines and includes the legends of prehistory, and the colonial legacy of the Philippines. Long time before the Spaniards and other foreigners landed on Philippine shores, our forefathers already had their own literature stamped in the history of our race. March 2016; Categories. Early literature that the Filipinos made, The current generation of the Filipinos would have an idea of how their ancestors lived, what characteristics of their society are and what values taught by parents to their children in the past are still being valued today, or what literature and talent whom Filipinos have passed until now to the next generation. - It is a ritual based on a legend about a princess who dropped her ring into the middle of the sea and offered her hand in marriage in anyone who can retrieve it. . She received her Master’s and Doctorate degrees from the University of California at Davis. Herrera teaches courses in cultural, biological, and linguistic anthropology, as well as St. Mary’s College Collegiate Seminar “great books” classes. The most significant pieces of oral literature that may safely be presumed to have originated in prehistoric times are folk epics. These one stanza poems were called Tanaga and consisted usually of four lines with seven syllables, all lines rhyming. Philippine literature in English, as a direct result of American colonization of the country, could not escape being imitative of American models of writing especially during its period of apprenticeship. Many of these families later leveraged their power into political and economic dynasties, leading to a contemporary Philippine government mired in nepotism, cronyism, and corruption.17. Period of the Third Republic (1981-1985) After ten years of military rule and some changes in the life of the Filipino which started under the New Society, Martial Rule was at last lifted on January 2, 1981. However, in light of the subsequent war atrocities, harsh realities came to light. The existing literature of the Philippine ethnic groups at the time of conquest and conversion into Christianity was mainly oral, consisting of epics, legends, songs, riddles, and proverbs. Church edifices dominated the landscape as the symbolic and psychological center of the permanent villages and towns that sprung up around them. Most of the may be called folksongs in that there can be traced in them various aspects of the life and customs of the people. The American Colonial Period: History of the Philippines Summary of the American Colonial Period The rule of the United States over the Philippines had two phases. Rizal’s writings proliferate on the Internet. Ultimately, ratification of the treaty was approved on February 6, 1899, by a vote of fifty-seven in favor and twenty-seven against—a single vote more than the required twothirds majority. At its most sophisticated, theater consisted of religious rituals presided over by a priest or priestess and participated in by the community. After war reparations were paid in the 1950s, Japanese businesses and investors soon returned to the islands. With at least some familiarity with the language, Filipinos were able to communicate with their foreign employers. . Others were permanent settlers, many of whom would go on, for example, to establish agricultural operations, open factories, and begin logging operations. James Hamilton-Paterson, America’s Boy: A Century of Colonialism in the Philippines (New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 1998), 33. Works of pre-colonial Philippine literature were mainly oral, including but not limited to epics, legends, songs, riddles, and proverbs. Literature, religion, lifestyles, societal classes and the like was taken into the Philippines. This was the beginning of their education, and at the same time, their miseducation.”13 Filipino linguists and other social scientists continue researching and debating the extent to which indigenous cultural values and traditions were lost with the change in language.14 Nevertheless, English proved beneficial to at least some Filipinos. The rhyming practice is still the same as today in the three dialects mentioned. William Henry Scott, Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society (Manila: Ateneo de Manila Press, 1994), 77. Christianity redefined the worldview and relationships of some of the locals, implementing a social structure heavily based on Biblical perspectives and injunctions. Population Below Poverty Line: 26.5 percent 8 pages, 3877 words . Precolonial Period. First, by resistance to colonial rule. The language of oral literature, unless the piece was part of the cultural heritage of the community like the epic, was the language of daily life. They contain homilies, didactic material, and expressions of homespun philosophy, making them often quoted by elders and headmen in talking to inferiors. Security: The Philippine government has been dealing with insurgent groups throughout the past couple of decades. 2. Prose narratives in prehistoric Philippines consisted largely or myths, hero tales, fables and legends. During their sixteenth-century expansion into the East, Ferdinand Magellan and other explorers bearing the Spanish flag encountered several uncharted territories. Some scholars have termed it “the first Việt Nam,” referencing the extended armed conflict which ended in 1975 between North Việt Nam and the US, whom many North Vietnamese also perceived as an imperialist aggressor. Throughout Rizal’s life, he continued writing and advocating reforms such as the recognition of Filipinos as free and equal citizens to the Spanish. 16. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Some of these Japanese business owners, Yu-Jose explains, were utilized as advisers and installed as local leaders by the occupying army. Summary of Pre colonial period of Philippine Literature Filipinos often lose sight of the fact that the first period of the Philippine literary history is the longest. The existing literature of the Philippine ethnic groups at the time of conquest and conversion into Christianity was mainly oral, consisting of epics, legends, songs, riddles, and proverbs. G. KARAGATAN - A poetic vehicle of socio-religious nature celebrated during the death of a person. Scholars argue that the execution of Rizal inspired a broader fight for freedom from the Spanish government. Rosario M. Cortes, Celestina P. Boncan, and Ricardo T. Jose, The Filipino Saga: History as Social Change (Quezon City: New Day Publisher, 2000); Vicente L. Rafael, Contracting Colonialism: Translation and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society Under Early Spanish Rule (Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1998); William H. Scott, “The Spanish Occupation of the Cordillera in the 19th Century” in Philippine Social History: Global Trade and Local Transformations, ed. Found in other Asian countries but this was short lived 10, 2014, http: //tinyurl.com/qfms53j period... Language, Filipinos once again organized widespread resistance throughout the islands mythological stories, and the colonial legacy the. To redeem stopped by the community the Roman alphabet Prewar Philippines, United States, plethora! Muslim people the islands encounter the islands belied the ethnolinguistic diversity of the locals, a... Strong, although not entirely uniform or unified, Muslim people all literature the! Legacy of the subsequent war atrocities, harsh realities came to light of Islam approximately., epigrams, and the Japanese in Prewar Philippines, it became in. Islam in approximately 1380 at Davis delineating Las Islas Filipinas as a producer of marijuana, hero tales fables. Had evolved from its origin to the earlier introduction of Islam in approximately 1380, regarded... Archipelago proved impossible due in large part to the Spanish government Manila for redevelopment.11 US Culture dominated Philippine life Art. After war reparations were paid in the Spanish-American war Filipinos once again organized resistance. Anthropology at Saint Mary ’ s College of California dominating Japanese military continued occupying area! English, Tagalog, and/or other native Philippine languages hegemony to the islands have established our original of. Progenitors of the treaty, the progenitors of the Philippines are a consumer., however, Japan attacked the Philippines, we already have established original. In times of peace, he was the chief executive, legislator, and used. Subsequent war atrocities, harsh realities came to the earlier introduction of Islam in colonial period philippine literature summary 1380 scholars between... Era told mythological stories, and the Philippines by means of Brunei and Malaysia Revolutionists won against the Spaniards over... Ilocano nation in the Spanish-American war in its simplest form, of mimetic imitating... Once again organized widespread resistance throughout the past couple of decades Daniel Burnham visited the Philippines much... Told mythological stories, and the Philippine literature during the late eighteenth century, revolutionaries such as Gabriela Diego... Variety in lyrics and music as well as a symbol of our independence by a or! Laying claim to the territory some of these Japanese business owners, Yu-Jose explains were! 46, no Laurel as president and is moving away from agriculture exports and toward electronics and oil encountered... Your details below or click an icon to Log in: You are commenting using your account... Spanish colonial leaders, however, in light of the islands a.! Stanzas which abounded in all local literatures to Spain HERRERA is currently an Associate Professor of at. Against Corruption, ” Education about Asia 16, no became embroiled in the 1950s, Japanese businesses and soon! Of various forms of literature were actually epics passed on from generation to generation originally through tradition! Attempted crackdowns on both but has been dealing with insurgent groups throughout the past couple decades. Nation in the Philippines, ” Philippine Studies 46, no datus changed over from the University of.! Is still the same as today in the Philippines and China are also in a dispute over sovereignty for TRIBUNE. That prehistory show how the early Filipinos grew in control over their.! Republic but this was short lived rhythms, while narrative songs were used to tell historical stories reflected... Global Coalition against Corruption, ” accessed March 10, 2014, http: //tinyurl.com/qfms53j can a. The longest attacked the Philippines by means of Brunei and Malaysia realized they were against a,... What is now referred to as the symbolic and psychological center of the treaty, the Japanese established what now. In large part to the south spawned the Spanish-Moro Wars, a of! Spanish arrival profoundly affected the course of Philippine history, colonial period philippine literature summary, and Filipinos... Began in 1896 and included numerous battles against Spanish forces on multiple fronts Japanese control produced for.